Climate change technology needs assessment of Ethiopia

Climate change technology needs assessment of Ethiopia


This article is the output of a project entitled “Climate Change Enabling Activities -Phase II” that was supported by the GEF through the UNDP.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) very well recognizes the importance of technology transfer as a key means to combat man-made climate change. This is clearly stated in Article 4.5 of the Convention. The Fourth Conference of Parties (COP-4) by its Decision 4/CP.4 also urged Non-Annex I Parties to submit their priority technology needs for mitigation and adaptation.

This Report is the output of a project entitled “Climate Change Enabling Activities -Phase II” which had been going on from 2005 to June 2007 with a financial support of the GEF through the UNDP. The project was implemented by the National Meteorological Agency in collaboration with governmental and non-governmental organizations.

The project had the following objectives:

  • Assessing, identifying and submitting technology needs for mitigation to the COP of the UNFCCC based on national development needs and priorities
  • Enhancing public awareness on climate change and
  • Capacity building in priority areas

The approach adopted in preparing the technology needs assessment was generally following the guidelines prepared by the UNDP and Climate Technology Initiatives (CTI). Besides, review of related literature and consultations with stakeholders were also undertaken.

Two stakeholder workshops were organaized at the national level. The first workshop was held on 17 November 2005 with the objective of scoping and sensetizing stakeholders about the project. The second workshop was held on 03 November 2006 to discuss the draft final document on TNA. About 200 experts drawn from governmental organizations, academia, the private sector and NGOs participated in these workshops.

The Report is divided into five chapters covering an introduction, an overview of Ethiopia’s greenhouse gas emissions, potential technology options, barriers for technology transfer and prioritized technologies. Project profiles/concepts that can be further elaborated into detailed project proposals are also annnexed to the Report. The titles the project profiles is summarized in Table 1.

The assessment was done based on the IPCC greenhouse gas emission categories/sectors namely; Energy, Agriculture, Land use change and forestry, Industrial processes and Waste. Sub-sectors were also selected under each sector based on the relative magnitude of GHG emission levels. According to the Initial National Communication of Ethiopia to the UNFCCC, GHG emissions in Ethiopia totaled about 48,003 Gg CO2-equivalents in 1994, excluding CO2 emissions/removals in the Land use Change and Forestry sector. Sector-wise Ethiopia’s GHG emission profile is dominated by emissions from Agriculture contributing 80% of the total while gas-wise it is dominated by CH4 contributing 80% of the total CO2 -equivalent emissions in 1994.

The Technology Needs Assessment process passed through the following steps:

  • Identification of priority sectors,
  • Compilation of technology information,
  • Setting criteria for prioritization,
  • Identification of barriers for technology transfer and
  • Selection of technologies based on the criteria

Criteria used for prioritization include;

  • Development benefits of the technology in terms of value added and the improvement of the quality of life for the majority of the population,
  • Market potential of the technology in terms of attracting investment and being in demand,
  • Potential of the technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
  • Potential to build on existing/on-going national programs that are already receiving government support and
  • Cost

A number of barriers for technology transfer were identified in each sector. The most common barriers cited in all sectors were:

  • Lack of financial resources,
  • Lack of technical capacity,
  • Lack of awareness and
  • Lack of adequate coordination, institutional set up and clear policies/mandates.

Technologies and interventions that were identified and prioritized for GHG reduction in the five sectors are presented below.

1. Priority Technologies for the Energy Sector

1.1 Power Generation

  • Generation and wider use of electricity from hydro-power including exporting to neighboring countries
  • Micro-pico hydropower generation
  • Photovoltaic
  • Geothermal
  • Wind turbine

1.2 Industry

• Conservation of energy through efficiency and management improvement

• Switching energy sources

1.3 Transport

• Alternative fuel

• Alternative means of transport

• Compact vehicles

• Efficient vehicles

• Infrastructure and systems improvement

1.4 Household

  • Fuel switching
  • Stove efficiency improvement

2. Priority Technologies for the Agriculture Sector

Several potential technology options from relevant sources were reviewed and promising technologies were short-listed. Further review and prioritization by stakeholders on the basis of selected criteria resulted in the identification of six technologies. Project profiles/concept notes were prepared for these technologies. Barriers for the implementation of the technologies and the means to overcome them were also assessed.

Technologies/interventions/practices for reducing the emission of methane from grazing livestock include

  • Reducing livestock numbers by improving productivity
  • Increasing the efficiency of animal production,
  • Genetic improvement
  • Manipulation of the rumen microbial ecosystem
  • Feed additives and
  • Improvement of farm management.

Technologies and practices for reducing N2O include

  • Optimization of soil aeration and water status through irrigation and drainage
  • Improved management of fertilizer application, amount, types and methods and time of application, soil PH adjusted by application of lime, supply of organic matter, and compaction of soil by animals and farm machinery.

3. Priority Technologies for Land Use Change and Forestry Sector

Forest related interventions that were proposed for the reduction of GHGs are

  • Improved management of existing forests
  • Expansion of forest cover and
  • Sustainable use of wood fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels.

4. Priority Technologies for Industrial Process Sector

The main emission in this sector originates from the production of cement. A number of mitigation options were identified for this sector. These options include

  • Raw material conservation
  • Efficient use of end products
  • Material recycling
  • Technology improvement and
  • Demand reduction.

5. Priority Technologies for the Waste Sector

  • Composting
  • Sanitary landfill and
  • Integrated solid waste management

Table 1: Summary of project titles whose project profiles/ concepts annexed in climate change Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) report of Ethiopia

No Project title
1 Energy sector
Power Generation sub-sector
1.1 Gilgelgibe III Hydropower Plant for Exporting Electricity
1.2 Establishment of Micro and Pico Hydro power plants
1.3 Off-Grid Solar Electrification
Transport Sub-sector
1.4 Biodiesel Production
1.5 Gasoline – Ethanol Blending
Industry sub-sector
1.6 Energy Efficiency Improvement
Household sub-sector
1.7 Use of Gel and Modified Liquid from Ethanol
1.8 Dissemination of Improved Stoves
2 Agriculture sector
2.1 Urea treatment of fibrous feeds (crop residues and native hay) to enhance feed intake and digestibility.
2.2 Use of Urea-molasses multi-nutrient block as supplement to fibrous feed to enhance feed intake and digestibility
2.3 Introduction of high quality fodder legumes in cereal crop rotations for strategic supplementation of crop residue-based diets, and soil nutrient accretion.
2.4 Expansion of sugarcane plantations in irrigable land resources of Ethiopia.
2.5 Promotion of conservation tillage practice in high erosion-prone environments based on rotations of high-value crops (‘noug’, G. Abyssinia) with fodder legumes
2.6 Development of Silvopastoral plantations in hydromorphic and halophytic environments of Ethiopia.
3 Land Use Change and Forestry sector
3.1 Conservation of High Forest and Woodland Vegetation of Ethiopia
3.2 Woodland Conservation/Management
3.3 Forestation
3.4 Substitute Management
4 Industrial Process sector
4.1 Intensificationof plant growth in the premise of industries
4.2 Use of additional raw material (blending)
4.3 Carbon dioxide capture and storage
5 Waste sector
5.1 Solid Waste Composting and Sanitary Land fill